T h e

K a s h m i r

T  e  l  e  g  r  a  p  h

Sixth Edition

A Kashmir Bachao Andolan Publication

Oct 2002

I N S I D E


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Romeet K WATT

 

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Romeet K WATT

 

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Dr Ishtiaq Ahmed

 

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Romeet K WATT

 

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T V R Shenoy

 

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 IN BLACK & WHITE

J&K: 1947 - AK47

Chronology of major events

A compilation by Romeet K WATT


This is a delineation of all the important events in the history of Kashmir that have led up to the current situation.

 

1846
Gulab Singh purchases Kashmir from the East India Company for Rs 75,00,000 (US$ 1,79,000) under the Treaty of Amritsar of 16 March 1846, and the state of Jammu and Kashmir, as we know it, comes into existence.

 

1924

Muslim notables in Srinagar present a memorandum to the British Viceroy regarding the Maharaja’s misrule and set forth popular demands


1931
The movement against Dogra rule begins; first organized protest against the Dogra rule. 11 representatives are chosen to conduct a movement against the Maharaja’s repression: these include Sheikh Abdullah, Ghulam Abbas, Saaduddin Shawl and Mirwaiz Muhammad Yusuf Shah.

 

1932
First mass organization in the State - the Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference- established. Sheikh Abdullah is elected President and Ghulam Abbas General Secretary. 

 

1934

The Maharaja constitutes state legislative assembly. Muslims constituting 77 percent of the population are allotted 32 seats in a house of 75, out of which 21 are to be elected and 11 nominated by the Maharaja. Muslim Conference captures 20 seats.

 

1936

Muhammad Ali Jinnah visits Srinagar. Jinnah counsels promotion of harmony between the Muslim majority and the Hindu minority.

 

1939

Special Muslim Conference session decides to convert party into National Conference. Some prominent Hindu leaders, including Prem Nath Bazaz, and Sham Lal Watt join the National Conference but Hindu masses keep distant.

 

1944

National Conference issues a radical manifesto called “New Kashmir” contemplating drastic social and economic measures - agrees to the inclusion of one nominee of the National Conference in the Maharaja’s cabinet.

1946
The National conference launches the Quit Kashmir movement, directed at the Maharajah, and demands the abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar. Abdullah, Watt and other leaders are arrested.

Nehru comes to Kashmir as his defense counsel, but is arrested and ordered to leave the State. Nehru is permitted to revisit Srinagar, meets Abdullah in jail.

 

1947

15 August: India and Pakistan are established as sovereign states. Standstill Agreement between Kashmir and Pakistan is signed for continuance of existing arrangements of trade, communications and services.  

29 September: Sheikh Abdullah is released by the Maharaja’s “act of royal clemency” 

22 October: Pakistan violates the Standstill Agreement by preventing essential supplies to the State. Armed Pakistani tribesman entered Kashmir forcing the Maharaja to flee. 

26-27 October: Maharajah Hari Singh signs the Instrument of Accession, acceding Kashmir to the Indian Union. The Indian Army enters the state to repel Pakistani raiders. Sheikh Abdullah is appointed head of the emergency administration. Lord Mountbatten accepts the "Instrument of Accession" on behalf of the British Crown.
01 November: Jinnah meets Governor General of India, Mountbatten - alleges that Kashmir's accession to India "was not a bona fide one since it rested on fraud and violence."

1
948

01 January: India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations Security Council and offers to hold a plebiscite, under UN supervision, after the raiders are moved back. 

20 January: The U.N. Security Council in its resolution of establishes the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) 

June: Sheikh Abdullah declares, "We the people of Jammu and Kashmir, have thrown our lot with Indian people not in the heat of passion or a moment of despair, but by a deliberate choice. The union of our people has been fused by the community of ideals and common sufferings in the cause of freedom" 

July: Principal Delegate of Pakistan in the U.N. admits to the U.N. Commission for India and Pakistan that the Pakistani Army had been in Kashmir. 

13 August: A UN commission proposes that the state's future be decided in accordance with the will of the people.  

20 December: Pakistan also accepts the UN resolution.

 

1949

01 January: Amidst great tension, one minute before midnight, India and Pakistan concluded a formal cease-fire agreement; leaves 84,000 sq. km of Kashmir under Pakistani control.  

5 January: Almost a year after Nehru's offer of plebiscite, the UNCIP passes a resolution that states, "The question of accession of the state of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through the democratic method of free and impartial plebiscite". However, Pakistan has yet to comply with the earlier resolution and withdraw from the State. 

17 October: The Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the Constitution, ensuring a special status for Jammu and Kashmir. This article is meant as a temporary measure, to be in effect until the formal constitution of Jammu and Kashmir is drafted.

 

1950

April: UN Security Council appoints Sir Owen Dixon as the UN representative in place of UNCIP to find expeditious and enduring solution to the India-Pakistan dispute over Kashmir. 

October: General Council of the National Conference demands elections to create a Constituent Assembly.

 

1951

05 July: Violation of Kashmir cease-fire line.

September: Elections for the Constituent Assembly ; National Conference wins all 45 seats unopposed

October: Constituent Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir is established in office.

05 November: The Constituent Assembly is given four tasks by Sheikh Abdullah which including the accession to India.

Nov-Dec 1951: Karan Singh is voted by the Constituent Assembly of the Jammu and Kashmir State as Sardar- i-Riyasat (Governor). An interim constitution for the state comes into effect in November.

 

1952

Jana Sangh begins campaign called "Ek Vidhan Ek Pradhan" (One Constitution, one leader) and demands that the State of Jammu and Kashmir be totally integrated into India. Jana Sang leader Shyamaprasad Mukherjee dies in a Kashmiri Jail under mysterious circumstances.
An agreement is arrived at on 24 July between Sheikh Abdullah and the Government of India which provides for the state's autonomy within India.

 

1953
On 9 August, Sheikh Abdullah is dismissed and arrested. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed becomes the state's prime minister. The governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a plebiscite administrator by the end of April 1954.

 

1956
The state Constituent Assembly adopts a constitution for the state, which has a provision making it an integral part of the Indian Union.

 

1963
Violence and demonstrations across the Valley occur on 27 December when the holy relic is found missing form the Hazratbal shrine.

 

1964
The holy relic is recovered on 4 January. Sheikh Abdullah is released on 8 April. Sheikh Abdullah goes to Pakistan on 25 May, at Nehru's instance, for talks with Field Marshal Ayub Khan. Protest demonstrations occur in Kashmir on 21 December against Articles 356 and 357 of the Constitution being extended to the state.

 

1965
India and Pakistan go to war after Pakistan attacks India, in operation code named, Gibraltar. The defeat of Pakistan results in the Tashkent Agreement between the two countries.

05 April: Pakistan gifts over 2000 sq. miles of Indian Territory in Kashmir to China under the Sino-Pak boundary agreement.

23 April: Pakistan launched an assault along a 60-mile front from Ding to Chhad in the Rann of Kutch.

05 August: Pak infiltrators crossed into Indian territory all along the 470 mile cease fire line in Kashmir.

21 August: Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri holds Pakistan responsible for sending 3,000 to 4,000 infiltrators into Kashmir and warned of an attack if aggression did not stop.

 

1971
Large scale uprising by the people of East Pakistan against West Pakistan authoritarianism. Pakistan resorts to air strikes against India.

03 December: Indo-Pakistan war begins after a premeditated air strike on a number of Indian airfields. Pakistani forces surrender in two weeks and East Pakistan is liberated to give birth to Bangladesh. Status quo is maintained on the western front between India and Pakistan.

 

1972
India and Pakistan sign the Shimla agreement on 2 July. The two agree to respect the line of control until the issue is finally resolved.

 

1974
The Kashmir accord is signed on 3 November by G. Parthasarthy, for Indira Gandhi, and Mirza Mohammed Afzal Beg for Sheikh Abdullah.

 

1975

Feb 24-25: Jammu and Kashmir is made a "Constituent Unit" of India and through this accord Indian Parliament reaffirms its right to legislate on any matter concerning the territory of the State. Sheikh Abdullah is sworn is as chief minister with the support of the Congress Legislature party.

 

1977
Sheikh Abdullah resigns after the Congress party withdraws support on 27 March. The Assembly is dissolved. On 30 June, the state goes to elections giving the National Conference 47 out of 76 seats.

 

1981
On 23 January, Sheikh Abdullah formally nominates his son Farooq as his political heir.

 

1982
Sheikh Abdullah dies on 8 September and Farooq becomes Chief Minister.

 

1983

Relations between Farooq Abdullah and Delhi deteriorate. The National Conference sweeps the Valley in the elections, winning 46 seats, while Congress scores a landslide in Jammu with 26 seats. Riots break out in Srinagar with several hundred injured. On 5-6 October, Farooq Abdullah hosts a conclave of Indian opposition parties in Srinagar, much to Mrs. Gandhi's anger.

1984-87
Jagmohan is appointed Governor in April and Farooq Abdullah's government is dismissed on 2 July. His brother-in-law, G.M. Shah is sworn in as Chief Minister. The Shah government is dismissed on 7 March. By November Farooq is back in power, after coming to an agreement with Rajiv Gandhi. This alliance loses both the National Conference and the Congress party considerable support in the Valley.

Maqbul Butt, head of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, is hanged in the Tihar jail in Delhi

In one of the most shameful acts of religious massacre, several ancient historical Hindu temples are destroyed and scores of Hindus were killed in the city of Anantnag

 

1987
The Muslim United Front comes into being in January when various Islamic organizations come together to oppose the National Conference-Congress electoral alliance. Farooq wins the elections in March but faces allegations of rigging.

 

1988
Protests begin in the valley along with anti India demonstrations. At least ten people are killed in police firing, the protests continue and there is curfew in the Valley in August.

 

1989
The violence begins when two bombs are thrown at the police. The incident is followed by grenade attacks by militants. In July, General K V. Krishna Rao becomes governor and in August, Yusuf Halwai, a National Conference worker, is shot dead by militants. On 8 December, within days of V P Singh becoming Prime Minister, Rubaiya Sayeed, daughter of the home minister, Mufti Mohammed Sayeed, is kidnapped by the JKLF. On 13 December, Rubaiya is released in exchange for five JKLF leaders whose release from prison results in victory celebrations in Srinagar. Two days later there is curfew in the Valley after the police kills five people in firing.

 

1990
Jagmohan is appointed Governor for a second time on 19 January; Farooq resigns. On 20 January, 35 people are killed when protesters are fired upon from both sides of the Gawakadal bridge. The violence continues, and on 13 February Lassa Koul, director of Srinagar Doordarshan, is killed by militants. In March, a mass exodus of Kashmiri Pundits takes place. Massive protest marches continue in Srinagar. The security forces try to stop them with police firing and more people are killed. On 21 May, Jagmohan resigns as governor and Girish Chandra Saxena, a former head of India's foremost intelligence agency RAW (Research and Analysis Wing) is appointed Governor.

 

1991
The violence continues, becoming endemic. A situation of virtual civil war now exists in the Valley.

 

1992
On 26 January, the BJP's Ekta Yatra (march for unity) is allowed to hoist the National Flag in Lal Chowk, under total curfew and massive security.

 

1993
In January forty people are killed in Sopore by security forces that burn down a section of the town after two of their men are killed. In March, General K V Krishna Rao becomes Governor again. In October security forces surround militants inside the Hazratbal mosque. After several days of siege, security forces open fire on protesters in Bij Behara killing sixty people.

 

1994
Prime Minister Narasimha Rao tries to start a political process in the Valley by releasing militant leaders like Yasin Malik and Shabir Shah. There is increasing evidence of foreigners entering the Valley in support of the militant movement. Also, evidence that it is turning into a larger Islamic 'jihad'.

 

1995
Jammu and Kashmir declared backward state under the new industrial policy, entrepreneurs exempted from income tax by 5 years. In May Chrar-e-Sharief town is set ablaze along with the 14th century Chrar-e-Sharief shrine by militants led by a foreign mercenary Mast Gul. In July, 5 foreign tourists are abducted from Pahalgam by a militant group (Al Faran).

 

1996
In March during an encounter with security forces at Hazratbal, 33 top militants are killed. In April elections for 6 parliamentary seats are held successfully. In September election to the State Assembly are conducted successfully. Separatists boycott the elections; voter turn-out is poor.

 

1997
In Jan, Govt announced setting up of a State Human Rights Commission. In Feb, Rs 7200 crore ( US $ 1714.28 million ) economic package is announced for J&K. In Mar, elections to the Legislative Council were held with National Conference winning all but one seat, which went to BJP.

 

1998
In Jan 23 Kashmiri Hindus are killed by militants at Wandhama village in Srinagar District. In May, India and Pakistan explode nuclear devices to establish their status as Nuclear powers in the region. Percentage of foreign militants killed goes up to 47 percent in 1998, there by indicating a sense of despondency in Pak ISI and Pro Pakistan groups.

 

1999
A contained war broke between India and Pakistan in Kargil region after a successful military operation of gurillas in Kashmir. Due to international pressure both countries again did ceasefire.

This is a delineation of all the important events in the history of Kashmir that have led up to the current situation.

 

2001

General Parvez Musharraf visited India to meet Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for the Summit talks in Agra. The nation watched in disappointment as the Summit was declared a failure but the people of Kashmir continue to hope each time the leaders meet to decide the lives of thousands of innocent lives.

 

2002

The year has seen heightened tension between India and Pakistan over the issue of Kashmir; diplomatic level is at low ebb with western nations trying to broker peace and end hostilities. India has refused to talk until cross-border terrorism is stopped by Pakistan. The year has seen gruesome massacres in J&K.

In the backdrop of non-participation by the separatists organization – APHC – the elections to the state legislative assemble take place in four-phases starting from 16th of this month.

Kashmir Committee led by Ram Jethmalani holds dialogues with the separatist’s organizations but fails to convince them to participate in the elections.

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